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Issues Likely Unanswered as Fed Meets  07/30 06:14

   WASHINGTON (AP) -- The Federal Reserve will likely end a policy meeting 
Wednesday with a lot of questions unanswered:

   When will it start tightening its benchmark short-term interest rate to make 
sure future inflation remains under control? How will it do so? And when will 
the Fed start reducing its enormous investment holdings --- a move that will 
put upward pressure on interest rates?

   Chair Janet Yellen gave few hints about the answers to such issues when she 
testified to Congress this month. And most analysts don't think the central 
bank will fill in any of the blanks when it ends a two-day meeting with a brief 
policy statement. There will be no Yellen news conference this time.

   One announcement that is expected is that the Fed will make a sixth $10 
billion cut in its monthly bond purchases, which have been aimed at keeping 
long-term rates low.

   A key reason is that the economy needs less help now. Hiring is solid, and, 
at 6.1 percent, the unemployment rate is on the cusp of a historically normal 
range. Manufacturing is strengthening. Consumers are voicing renewed confidence.

   Still, the economy isn't back to full health.

   Workers' pay remains flat. Turmoil overseas, from Ukraine to the Middle 
East, poses a potential threat. And as Yellen noted in her congressional 
appearance, long-term unemployment remains high and wage growth weak.

   For that reason, the Fed is expected to reaffirm its plan to leave its key 
short-term rate at a record low near zero "for a considerable time" after it 
ends its bond purchases.

   "There are so many uncertainties, both economic and political, that the Fed 
wants to leave plenty of wiggle room," said Sung Won Sohn, an economics 
professor at California State University, Channel Islands.

   The Fed will almost surely announce that it's reducing its monthly bond 
purchases from $35 billion to $25 billion. When the Fed started cutting the 
purchases in December, they stood at $85 billion a month.

   The Fed intends to end its new purchases by October. By then, its investment 
portfolio will be nearing $4.5 trillion --- five times its size before the 
financial crisis erupted in September 2008.

   After the crisis struck, the Fed embarked on bond purchases to try to drive 
down long-term rates and help the economy recover from the Great Recession. 
Even after its new bond purchases end, the Fed has said it will maintain its 
existing holdings, which means it will continue to put downward pressure on 

   The Fed has kept its target for short-term rates near zero since December 
2008. Most economists think it will start raising rates by mid-2015, though 
some caution that the Fed could do so sooner if the economy keeps generating 
jobs at a robust pace. There have been five straight months of 200,000-plus job 

   Mark Zandi, chief economist at Moody's Analytics, said he thinks chronically 
lagging pay growth, in particular, will stop the Fed from raising rates before 

   Besides discussing short-term rates, Fed officials this week are likely 
debating how to unwind their investment holdings. They face a delicate task in 
shrinking the portfolio to more normal levels without destabilizing markets. 
The Fed's bond purchases allowed it to inject money into the financial system, 
which wound up as reserves held by banks and helped keep loan rates low.

   To reverse that process and raise borrowing rates, the Fed is considering a 
variety of tools. One would be to increase the interest it pays banks on excess 
reserves they keep at the Fed.

   David Jones, author of a new book on the central bank's 100 year history, 
said any new exit details might not be revealed until the Fed releases the 
minutes of this week's meeting in three weeks. Those minutes, Jones said, "may 
be the most interesting thing to come out of the meeting."


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