Banks Falling Short of Inflation Target09/04 06:09
WASHINGTON (AP) -- Is 2 percent inflation too high to reach?
The Federal Reserve and European Central Bank have been striving to generate
a small dose of inflation --- around 2 percent annually, just enough to spur
more spending and income but not so much that prices surge out of control.
Both central banks are consistently failing.
And so the question has arisen of whether the Fed and the ECB should
recognize that 2 percent inflation in a global economy awash in cheap oil,
available workers and money-saving technologies might be too ambitious and
should lower their targets.
ECB President Mario Draghi faced that very question at a news conference
Thursday in Frankfurt, Germany.
Draghi was having none of it, at least publicly.
He said that lowering the ECB's 2 percent inflation target would represent
an admission of failure that could damage the central bank's authority.
"It will test our credibility if we were to change our target, when it's
taking more effort to achieve that target," he said.
In the 19 European countries that share the euro currency, annual inflation
is a scant 0.2 percent. In the United States, the Fed's preferred inflation
measure is 0.3 percent. U.S. inflation hasn't breached 2 percent in more than
The major central banks' historically low interest rates and mass bond
purchases have failed to offset the pressures of lower energy prices and tepid
When the Fed ends its next policy meeting on Sept. 17, it will announce
whether it's raising U.S. interest rates after nearly seven years of record
lows. In calculating that decision, the Fed must weigh its confidence that
inflation will return eventually to 2 percent --- one of its mandates.
The credibility of the Fed and ECB hinges in part on their ability to
achieve that level of inflation. And as that target remains distant, central
bankers must maintain the extraordinary interventions they began with the 2008
global financial meltdown.
Lowering an inflation target would carry its own risks. For one thing, it
would put countries perilously close to a deflationary trap. In this scenario,
consumers would stop spending because goods and services keep becoming cheaper
--- which then stifles economic growth. That's why economists and analysts say
that central banks need to continue supporting economic growth.
Mohamed El-Erian, chief economic adviser at Allianz and a former deputy
director of the International Monetary Fund, says the dilemma stems from an
overreliance on interest-rate policies to support a floundering Europe.
Alternatively, El-Erian argues, governments could have deployed other,
"The fundamental issue is neither the target nor what the ECB can do on its
own to meet it," he says. "It is about the lack of a comprehensive policy
response that engages the full economic tools available to Europe."
In the United States, the situation is somewhat different in the United
States, where the unemployment rate is half the size of Europe's. The U.S.
jobless rate has dipped to 5.3 percent, a nearly normal level that would
usually lead the Fed to raise rates. Yet low unemployment has failed to send
inflation to the 2 percent target.
Some economists caution against a September rate hike by the Fed precisely
because of the inflation target: They argue that a rate increase that takes
effect before clear evidence of rising prices could choke off consumer and
business spending and potentially income growth.
"When the world economy is fragile, you end up restraining demand," says
Stephen Oliner, a former Fed economist who is now a resident scholar at the
American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank. "That's why
tightening now would be a head-scratcher.